Diferensya entre trocamientos de "Minhag"

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(Pajina mueva: '''''Minhag''''' ({{lang-he|מנהג}} "custom", pl. ''minhagim'') is an accepted tradition or group of traditions in Judaism. A related concept, '''''Nusach''''' ({{lang|he|נ…)
 
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'''''Minhag''''' ({{lang-he|en [[ivrit]] '''מנהג}}''', "customkostúmbre", pl.plural ''minhagim'') ises anuna acceptedtradisiyon traditionakseptada oro groupun ofgrupo traditionsde intradisiyones akseptadas en el [[JudaismDjudaismo]]. AUn relatedkonsepto relasionado concept, '''''[[NusachNusah]]''''' ({{lang|he| en ivrit '''נוסח}}'''), refersse torefiee thea traditionalla orderforma andi formorden oftradisional thede meldar. En [[Jewish services|prayersarabo]]. {{lang-ar|'''منهاج}}''' (''minhāj'') alsotambien meanssignikifa customkonstúmbre oro traditiontradisiyon, though notafilu necessarilyno religiousnesesariamente traditionrelijioza.
 
==OriginOrijin ofde wordla palavra==
La rais ebrea N-H-G ('''נ-ה-ג''') signifika prinsipalmente "kondusir" o, "konduzirse". La palavra ''minhag'' aparese dos vezes en el [[Tanah]], en el livro de Reyes Bet 9:20. Afilú el uzo presente d ela palavra puede ser influensiado por la palavra [[araba]] ''minhaj'', anke en entornos de ensenyanza islamika, es uzado prinsipalmente para la metodolojiya intelektuala o una skola de pensada (en [[ivrit]] ''dereh''), má ke para las kostúmbres de una komunita en partikolar.
The Hebrew root N-H-G ({{lang-he|נ-ה-ג}}) means primarily "to drive" or, by extension, "to conduct (oneself)".
 
==Minhagim==
The actual word ''minhag'' appears twice in the [[Hebrew Bible]], both times in the verse:{{quote|And the watchman told, saying: 'He came even unto them, and cometh not back; and the driving (''minhag'') is like the driving (''minhag'') of Jehu the son of Nimshi; for he driveth furiously.' (II [[Book of Kings|Kings]] 9:20)}}Homiletically, one could argue that the use of the word ''minhag'' in Jewish law reflects its [[Biblical Hebrew]] origins as "the (manner of) driving (a chariot)". Whereas ''Halakha'' (law), from the word for walking-path, means the path or road set for the journey, ''minhag'' (custom), from the word for driving, means the manner people have developed themselves to travel down that path more quickly.
Los prinsipales segmentos del djudaismo tradisional, diferensiados por su [[nusah]], son:
* [[Djudaismo Sefardí|Minhag Sefarad]]: en jeneral se refiere a las diferentes liturjias Sefardís, má endemás a la obligasiyon/permisibilitá de elementos [[Kabala|kabalistikos]] dentro del rito. Entre eyos egzisten:
** El rito de los [[Djudios Espanyoles i Portugezes]]
** ''Nusah Marokai'' (Rito Maroki: egzisten diferensias entre las kostúmbres Espanyola-Marrokí i la Araba-Marrokí)
** ''Nusah ha-Hida'' (El rito '''Hida''', yamado ansina debido al sinyor haham [[Haim Joseph David Azoulay]]: es el uzado por los djudios del Nord de [[Afrika]])
** ''Nusah Livorno'' (Rito Sefardi de edisiones del syéklo XIX emprimidas en [[Italia]], uzado por los djudios del Nord de [[Afrika]])
* ''Minhag Edot haMizrah'': Uzado a menudo para deskrivir el rito Bagdadi, esta influensiado por el Minhag Sefarad.
* ''Nusah Teiman'' (ver endemas el artikolo sobro de los [[Djudios Temanis]]): puede ser sub-dividido en:
** Minhag Baladi (el rito orijinal de los Temanis)
** Minhag Shami (enfluensiado por el rito Sefardi
* ''Minhag Italki'' i ''Minhag Benè Romì'', ver el artikolo [[Djudios Italianos]]
* ''Minhag Romania'', el rito de los [[Romaniotes]], ke es el rito orijinal de la komunita djudia gréka, distinto del rito Sefardi
* ''Nusah Ashkenaz'': el rito jeneral [[Ashkenazi]] de los djudios no Hasidikos. Se puede separar en:
** ''Minhag Ashkenaz'' (Germanrito riteAlmán)
** ''Minhag Polin/Lita'' (rito Polako/Lituano/Sheko)
* [[Nusah Sfard]] o [[Nusah Ari]] (rito Ashkenazi [[Hasidim|Hasidiko]], muy enfluensiado por las ensenyanzas de los [[Kabala|kabalistas]] Sefardim)
 
==Enlasos eksternos i más enformasiyon==
The present use of ''minhag'' for custom may have been influenced by the [[Arabic language|Arabic]] ''minhaj'', though in current Islamic usage this term is used for the intellectual methodology of a scholar or school of thought (cf. Hebrew ''derech'') rather than for the customs of a local or ethnic community.
; Referensias
 
==Minhag and Jewish law==
Orthodox Jews consider ''[[Halakha]]'', Jewish law as derived from the [[Talmud]], binding upon all Jews. However, in addition to these ''halakhot'', there have always been local customs and prohibitions. Some customs were eventually adopted universally (e.g. wearing a [[kippah|head covering]]) or almost universally (e.g. [[monogamy]]). Others are observed by some major segments of Jewry but not by others (e.g., not eating [[Kitniyot|rice]] on [[Passover]]).
These ''Minhagim'' exist in various forms:
*Ancient ''minhagim'' go back to the time of the [[Talmud]] and earlier. Today they are generally regarded as universally binding. The oldest recorded minhag is that of 'beating the [[Aravah (Sukkot)|Aravot]]' ([[Willow]] Branches) on [[Hoshanah Rabbah]], and dates back to the era of the [[Prophet#Prophets in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible)|Prophets]].
*Later ''minhagim'' are followed by specific groups.
**Jews whose ancestors continued to live in the [[Middle East]] and [[Africa]], until the establishment of the [[State of Israel]], regardless of where they live now tend to follow a variety of customs such as [[Mizrahi Jews|Mizrahi]]-[[Sephardic Judaism|Sephardi]] or [[Yemenite Jews|Temani]]. By like token, Jews whose ancestors lived in [[Central Europe]] in the [[Middle Ages]] (regardless of where they live now) tend to follow [[Ashkenazi]]c customs, while those whose families originated in the Iberian peninsula generally follow [[Sephardic Judaism|Sephardic]] customs. (The Talmud gives detailed rules for people who visit or move to a locale where the custom differs from their own.) [[Hasidic Judaism|Hasidim]] tend to follow their own ''Minhagim''.
**Within these broad categories there are also sub-groups by origin (e.g. [[Lithuanian Jews|Lithuanian]] or [[History of the Jews in Poland|Polish]] or [[History of the Jews in Germany|German]] customs), by location (e.g. "minhag [[Jerusalem|Yerushalayim]]") or by branch (e.g. [[Skver (Hasidic dynasty)|Skverrer]] [[Hasidic Judaism|Hasidim]] follow different customs than [[Chabad-Lubavitch|Chabad]] [[Hasidic Judaism|Hasidim]]).
** Families and even individuals may adhere to specific ''minhagim'' not followed by others.
 
===Discussion in Rabbinic literature===
Various sources in [[Rabbinic literature]] stress the importance of a long-held tradition, culminating in the statement "the ''minhag'' of our fathers is [equivalent to] Torah" (e.g. [[Tosafot]] to ''[[Kodshim|Menahot]]'' 20b s.v. ''nifsal''). Custom can thus determine halachic practice in cases of disagreement among rabbinic authorities. In numerous instances, [[Rabbi]] [[Moses Isserles]] warns that one should not abolish long-held customs. (Isserles' [[gloss]] on the ''[[Shulchan Aruch]]'' was, in fact, written so as to delineate [[Ashkenazi]] ''Minhagim'' alongside [[Sephardi]] practices in the same [[Halakha#Codes of Jewish law|code of law]].)
 
Despite the above, a ''minhag'' does not override clear biblical or talmudic enactments, and one may not transgress the latter for the sake of the former. In fact, any ''minhag'' that intrinsically involves an element of ''halakha'' violation is considered null and void (see ''[[Or Zarua]]'' 1:7).
 
The Talmud (Pesachim 50) rules that a valid ''minhag'' accepted by previous generations of a family or community is binding upon all later generations. The ''[[Asher ben Yechiel|Rosh]]'' (Makom Shenahagu, 3) states that the Talmud's ruling fundamentally applies to practices undertaken by learned individuals; innovations by the unlearned need only be followed publicly. Other ''halakhic'' authorities hold that the Talmud's ruling applies to all valid practices initiated by either learned or unlearned individuals (for discussion of this point see ''[[Yoel Sirkis|Bach]]'' and ''[[Yosef Karo|Beit Yosef]]'' to [[Yoreh Deah]] 214; ''Shach'', ibid., 214:7).
 
In most cases, personal acceptance of a new ''minhag'' is tantamount to [[vow]]ing performance of that ''minhag''. Consequently, abandonment of such a ''minhag'' typically requires ''[[hatarat nedarim]]'' or ''sh'eilat chakham'', ''[[halakha|halakhic]]'' procedures for absolving oneself from oaths. This was often necessary when, for example, an Ashkenazi Jew moved to the [[Ottoman Empire]] and wished to join the local Sephardi community.
 
===Changing minhagim===
Jewish law provides for a number of mechanisms to change or remove a custom when it is held to be mistaken or illogical. (See [[Tosafot]] on Talmud ''Pesachim'' 51a; [[Maimonides]], [[Mishneh Torah]], ''Hilchot Issurei Biah''; ''Be'er Heitev'', [[Orach Chaim]] 182 in ''Hilchot Birkat Ha'mazon'', ''Orach Chaim'' 653 in ''Hilchot Lulav'', ''Orach Chaim'' 551:4 in ''Hilchot Tisha B'av''.) Orthodox rabbi and historian of Jewish law [[Menachem Elon]] writes:
 
:Custom, because of its spontaneous and undirected nature, sometimes call for a measure of supervision and control. At times a custom may be founded on error, or develop unreasonably or illogically in a certain direction, or may even be in conflict with substantive and [[fundamental]] principles of Jewish law in a manner leaving no room for its integration into the system. From time to time the halakhic scholars exercised such control in order to contain or discredit entirely a particular custom.
:("The Principles of Jewish Law", single volume English edition)
 
===Present day===
The acute displacement brought about by [[World War II]] and [[the Holocaust]], and the large-scale [[immigration]] to the [[United States]], various [[Europe]]an countries, and especially the [[State of Israel]], have led to a "liberal mixing" of various ''minhagim'', and arguably the falling into disuse of certain customs. In addition, the ''[[baal teshuva]]'' movement has created a large group who have no clear tradition from their parents. In response to these phenomena, certain [[posek|scholars]] have focused on the ''minhagim'', and attempts have been made to revive ''minhagim'' that have fallen into disuse.
 
==Nusach==
{{main|Nusach}}
''Nusach'' (properly ''nósach'') primarily means "text" or "version", in other words the correct wording of a religious text. Thus the ''nusach tefillah'' is the text of the prayers, either generally or as used by a particular community. In common use ''nusach'' has come to signify the entire liturgical tradition of the community, including the musical rendition. It is narrower than ''minhag'', which can refer to custom in any field, not necessarily that of communal prayer.
 
Both ''nusach'' and ''minhag'' can thus be used for ''liturgic rite'' or ''liturgic tradition'', though sometimes a ''nusach'' appears to be a subdivision of a ''minhag'' or vice versa; see [[Siddur#Different Jewish rites|Different Jewish rites]] and [[Siddur#Popular siddurim|Popular siddurim]] under [[Siddur]]. In general one must pray according to one's "''nusach'' of origin", unless one has formally joined a different community and accepted its ''minhag''. ([[Joshua Falk#Works|Perisha]] rules that if one abandons a ''nusach'' that has been accepted universally by the wider Jewish community, his prayer is disqualified and must be repeated using the accepted ''nusach'': [[Arba'ah Turim]], [[Orach Chayim]], 120 ad loc).
 
The main segments of traditional Judaism, as differentiated by ''nusach'' (broadly and narrowly), are:
* [[Sephardic Judaism|Minhag Sefarad]]: in general refers to the various [[Sephardic Judaism#Liturgy|Sephardi]] liturgies, but also to obligation/permissibility of [[Kabbalah|Kabbalistic]] elements within the rite. Versions of this are:
** The rite of the [[Spanish and Portuguese Jews]]
** ''Nusach Morocco'' (Moroccan rite: there are differences between the Spanish-Moroccan and the Arab-Moroccan customs)
** ''Nusach ha-Chida'' (The ''Chida'''s rite, named after Rabbi [[Chaim Joseph David Azulai]]: often used by North African Jews)
** ''Nusach Livorno'' (Sephardic rite from nineteenth-century editions printed in Italy, often used by North African Jews)
* ''Minhag Edot hamizrach'': often used to mean the Baghdadi rite, is more or less influenced by the [[Sephardic Judaism#Liturgy|Sephardi]] minhag.
* ''Nusach Teiman'' (see [[Yemenite Jews]]): can be subdivided into:
** Minhag [[Yemenite Jews#Religious groups|Baladi]] (original Yemenite rite)
** Minhag [[Yemenite Jews#Religious groups|Shami]] (influenced by Sephardic rite)
* ''Minhag Italiani'' and ''Minhag Benè Romì'', see [[Italian Jews#Italian rite Jews|Italian Jews]]
* ''Minhag Romania'', the rite of the [[Romaniotes]], that is the original Greek Jewish community as distinct from the Sephardim
* ''Nusach Ashkenaz'': the general [[Ashkenazi]] rite of non-[[Hasidic Judaism|Chasidim]]. Can be subdivided into:
** ''Minhag Ashkenaz'' (German rite)
** ''Minhag Polin''/Lita (Polish/Lithuanian/Prague rite)
* [[Nusach Sefard]] or [[Nusach Ari]] (Ashkenazi [[Hasidic Judaism|Chasidic]] rite, heavily influenced by the teachings of Sephardi [[Kabbalah|Kabbalists]])
 
==External links and resources==
; References
*[http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=939&letter=C Custom], jewishencyclopedia.com
*[http://www.aish.com/literacy/concepts/The_Rules_of_Halacha.asp The Rules of Halacha], Rabbi [[Aryeh Kaplan]]
*[http://www.yoatzot.org/article/91 Customs (Minhagim)], nishmat.net
 
; Enformasiyon
; Resources
*''[[RabbinicLiteratura literaturerabinika]]''
*[http://sites.google.com/site/sagesofashkenaz/Home/seforim-index/genre/halacha-and-minhag/ Sages of Ashkenaz Database] - Online collection of minhag seforim
**''Minhagei Maharil'', Rabbi [[Yaakov ben Moshe Levi Moelin]] (''Maharil''), 1556.
**"''Otzar Ta'amei ha-Minhagim''", Rabbi Shmuel Gelbard, 1995; translation: "Rite and Reason" Feldheim Pub. 1997 ISBN 0-87306-889-0
 
;Enformasiyon jeneral
*''General''
**"The Biblical and Historical Background of Jewish Customs and Ceremonies", Rabbi Abraham Bloch. Ktav 1980. ISBN 0-87068-658-5
**"The Minhagim: The Customs and Ceremonies of Judaism, Their Origins and Rationale", Rabbi Abraham Chill. Sepher Hermon 1978. ISBN 0-87203-077-6
** "Jewish Spiritual Practices", Yitzhak Buxbaum. Jason Aronson Inc. 1994. ISBN 0-87668-832-6 (hardcover) ISBN 1-56821-206-2 (paperback)
 
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